If the intention is to restrict users from accessing the personal geodatabase, setting the appropriate user level permissions on the folder is recommended. For more information on setting different permissions for different users accessing a personal geodatabase, see the following ESRI Knowledge Base article in the Related Information below.
- Is it possible to set different permissions (read-only, read-write) for different users accessing a personal geodatabase?
Yes, however users will run into Microsoft known limits: 1) If a user with read-only access views an .mdb in ArcMap first, and a full-permissions user opens it second, the second user will not be able to edit the Personal Geodatabase. All user…
Source: ESRI Technical Article